The Top 10 SwiftUI Interview Questions for iOS Developers

Apple’s new UI framework, SwiftUI, lets you build user interfaces that work on all Apple platforms using declarative syntax. This strong framework has quickly become popular since it was released in 2019, making it a must-know skill for iOS developers.

As companies continue to adopt SwiftUI for their apps, knowing key concepts and best practices is crucial for aspiring iOS devs seeking new opportunities. In this article, we provide ten of the most common SwiftUI interview questions that assess a candidate’s understanding of building apps with SwiftUI. Whether you are prepping for an upcoming iOS interview or simply looking to gauge your SwiftUI skills, these questions are a great checkpoint.

1. How would you explain SwiftUI’s environment to a new developer?

In SwiftUI, the environment is a structure that can only be read and holds values that are passed down the view hierarchy. This makes it easy for views below to access and change these values, which promotes consistency without the need for explicit data propagation.

Some key things about SwiftUI’s environment

  • It uses a protocol called EnvironmentValues which contains variables that can be accessed using property wrappers like @Environment,

  • Things like app state, device details, localization etc. are available in the environment.

  • The environment is read-only from a view’s perspective. To modify it there is a .environment modifier.

  • Environment values flow down the view tree from parent to child. All children have access.

  • Useful for settings that need to be available across the app, like dark mode and accessibility

As a framework that heavily utilizes Swift concepts like protocols and property wrappers, getting a good grasp of the environment is essential for new devs starting with SwiftUI.

2. What does the @Published property wrapper do?

The @Published property wrapper is used to create a published instance of a property that can be observed for changes.

Here are some key things about @Published:

  • It can only be applied to properties on classes that conform to ObservableObject protocol.

  • When the @Published property value changes, all the observers are notified of the change.

  • This causes any view observing the object to refresh and update its body.

  • Useful for observable data models whose changes need to be reflected in views.

  • Allows minimal code to propagate changes to SwiftUI views.

3. What does the @State property wrapper do?

The @State property wrapper is used to declare mutable state in SwiftUI views. Here are some ways how it helps with state management:

  • @State creates a source of truth that can be modified directly within the view.

  • SwiftUI manages this state internally and ensures the view re-renders when it changes.

  • The state is private to the view and can’t be accessed externally.

  • Useful for simple UI state like toggles, text field values etc.

  • Allows views to change their own local state without external state handling.

So in essence, @State makes state management straightforward by limiting scope while still enabling full control within the view itself.

4. What’s the difference between a view’s initializer and onAppear()?

The initializer for a SwiftUI view runs only once when the view is first created. On the other hand, onAppear() gets called every time the view appears on screen.

This distinction is important:

  • Use initializer for one-time setup like initializing constants/variables.

  • Use onAppear() for recurring setup like fetching remote data.

  • onAppear() also useful for triggering animations and transitions as it gets called on every view appearance.

  • Initializer should avoid asynchronous code or updates that require the view to be rendered.

So while both are used for view setup, the initializer handles static setup while onAppear() handles dynamic logic. Understanding their differences helps prevent common bugs.

5. When would you use @StateObject versus @ObservedObject?

@StateObject and @ObservedObject both allow a view to observe changes to a reference type like a class. However, there are some key differences:

  • @StateObject creates and stores an instance for that view only.

  • @ObservedObject holds a reference to an external instance.

  • @StateObject is useful for encapsulated view state that doesn’t need to be shared.

  • @ObservedObject is useful when you need to share data between multiple views.

  • Overusing @StateObject can cause issues when view gets recreated.

  • Use @ObservedObject for models, @StateObject for temporary state.

  • @StateObject for self-contained, private view state.

  • @ObservedObject for shared, external state.

Understanding when to use each prevents common data flow issues in SwiftUI apps.

6. How would you implement navigation in SwiftUI?

SwiftUI provides a declarative NavigationView syntax for building navigation hierarchies. Some key points:

  • Enclose navigable views in NavigationView { }

  • Use NavigationLink {“Text”, destination: someView} for tappable links

  • NavigationView manages a navigation stack internally.

  • New screens are pushed onto stack as links are tapped.

  • .navigationBarTitle / .navigationBarHidden to show/hide title

  • .toolbar { } to show/hide toolbar buttons

This allows navigation flow to be defined upfront in code rather than manually handling view controllers.

There is also integration with UIKit’s UINavigationController for more complex cases. But SwiftUI’s built-in declarative syntax covers most standard navigation scenarios without needing UIKit involvement.

7. How do you handle asynchronous code in SwiftUI?

Here are some ways to handle asynchronous code like API calls in SwiftUI:

  • Use Combine framework publishers like Future or Just to wrap asynchronous code and emit results.

  • SwiftUI schedule task using DispatchQueue to avoid blocking main thread.

  • Use @Published property wrapper to update UI from callback closures.

  • Handle loading state with enum (idle, loading, finished) bound to UI.

  • Use async/await from Swift 5.5 for cleaner async code.

  • Show loading spinner until task finishes using overlay modifier.

The key is using declarative data binding rather than imperative callbacks to update UI based on async results. This ensures SwiftUI’s reactivity is maintained.

8. What is the purpose ofPreviewProvider in SwiftUI?

PreviewProvider allows SwiftUI views to be rendered in the Canvas or Xcode Preview panel without running the full app.

Some important uses:

  • See Live Previews of UI changes as you code without recompiling.

  • Test UI behavior across different device sizes or orientations.

  • Pass sample data into views for development/testing.

  • Share standalone view previews with teammates.

Overall, PreviewProvider streamlines building and iterating on SwiftUI views within Xcode. This makes development highly iterative by providing instant UI feedback without needing to launch the app repeatedly.

9. How would you store persistent data in a SwiftUI app?

Some good options for data persistence with SwiftUI are:

  • UserDefaults for small bits of user data and preferences.

  • Core Data for structured, relational data and Object graph management.

  • Codable and JSON for serialization/deserialization of custom objects.

  • Firebase or CloudKit for cloud-based NoSQL databases.

  • Local SQLite databases for offline persistence of records.

  • Combine frameworks like Realm, Apollo or Couchbase Mobile for mobile-optimized databases.

SwiftUI provides easy declarative bindings for most persistence solutions. The key is picking a storage method that matches your app’s data model and use cases.

10. How do you implement animations in SwiftUI?

Here are some ways animations can be implemented in SwiftUI:

  • Use the .animation modifier by passing in an Animation value

  • Animate bindings by applying the modifier to the parent of the view with the binding.

  • Use withTransition to animate view transitions like insertion/removal.

  • For advanced control, use AnimatableData and animatableModifier.

  • Use matchedGeometryEffect to animate between two related views.

  • Use animatable system values like offset, scale or opacity.

  • Control things like delay, duration and timing curve of animations.

These questions provide a broad overview of key SwiftUI concepts, best practices and application architecture – from fundamentals like state management to advanced topics like animations and async handling. Mastering these areas is essential for both passing iOS interviews and being an effective SwiftUI developer.

The declarative nature of SwiftUI enables incredibly expressive UI code while retaining the full power of Swift. However, it requires rethinking traditional UIKit patterns. Hopefully these questions provide a solid foundation for making that transition. As SwiftUI continues to evolve, so will its best practices – but the core concepts remain foundational.

swiftui interview questions

Can you describe your experience with combining SwiftUI and UIKit?

Yes, I have experience combining SwiftUI and UIKit in my projects. In my last job at XYZ company, I had to use SwiftUI to redesign the user interface for our iOS app. However, there were certain components of the app that were already built using the traditional UIKit framework.

  • I used UIViewRepresentable protocols to make UIViews that matched the UIKit-built UI components so that SwiftUI and UIKit could work together.
  • After that, I made a Swift file that connected the two frameworks and let them talk to each other without any problems.
  • After finishing the bridge file, it was easy for me to use UIKit parts in my SwiftUI layout, making the two frameworks work together without any problems.
  • Finally, the updated UI looked more modern thanks to the new SwiftUI interface, but it still worked like the old UIKit features did.

Because of this, I learned how important it is to know both SwiftUI and UIKit, because combining them can make the app better for everyone. Additionally, it also improved my problem-solving skills and ability to communicate effectively with my team members.

Have you ever encountered any performance issues when working with SwiftUI, and how did you resolve them?

In my work with SwiftUI, I did run into a performance problem when adding a complicated animation to one of my projects. The animation caused the app to slow down and become unresponsive.

To resolve this issue, I first used the Instruments tool to identify the bottleneck in the code. After analyzing the data, I found that the animation was causing excessive CPU usage.

I changed the animation code to use better animation methods, like easing and keyframe animations, to fix the problem. I also reduced the number of elements being animated and optimized the code to minimize unnecessary computations.

After implementing these changes, I retested the app and found that it was significantly faster and responsive. The CPU usage had also reduced from 80% to 25%, according to the Instruments tool.

Overall, this taught me how important it is to make code run faster and use the tools that are available to find and fix performance problems.

SwiftUI Interview Questions || iOS Interview Questions


What is the difference between Swift and SwiftUI?

In summary, Swift is the programming language used for building the logic and functionality of your applications, while SwiftUI is a framework for building user interfaces in a declarative manner. You can use them together, with Swift providing the backend logic and SwiftUI handling the frontend user interface.

What is SwiftUI used for?

SwiftUI is a new way to build user interfaces for apps on Apple platforms. It allows developers to define the UI using Swift code.

What language is used in SwiftUI?

SwiftUI is a user interface framework for building user interfaces for iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, tvOS, visionOS and macOS, developed by Apple Inc. for the Swift programming language.

Is SwiftUI easy to use?

SwiftUI provides easy-to-use and powerful animation capabilities. Animations can be applied to various UI elements with minimal code.

What type of view does SwiftUI use?

SwiftUI uses the associatedType in View protocol, where the body property returns an associatedType of View, meaningView can be any type of View like HStack, ZStack, or ListView. 8. How to debug a SwiftUI view?

How do I prepare for a SwiftUI interview?

Prepare for the types of questions you are likely to be asked when interviewing for a position where SwiftUI will be used. If you’re applying for a position that involves SwiftUI, you’re likely to encounter questions about the framework during your job interview.

What is SwiftUI & how does it work?

SwiftUI is a modern, flexible, and easy-to-use framework for building user interfaces on Apple platforms. It is the future of iOS and macOS app development, and it is becoming increasingly popular among developers.

What should you expect during a SwiftUI interview?

Since SwiftUI is built on top of Swift, it’s important to have a solid understanding of the Swift programming language. Be sure to review topics such as variables, functions, closures, classes, and structs. If you’ve built any projects with SwiftUI in the past, be prepared to discuss them in detail during the interview.

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